The examination methods and questions have a large impact on how and when students study and what they learn. Examination should not only be used as a control that a student is qualified, but also as an educational tool to influence the learning process Figure 8.
The Pedagogical Enhancement of Open Education: The movement now has a critical mass of available content. Leveraging no small amount of funding and associated development, open education has the tools to collect, disseminate, and support the discovery of open materials.
Now that the foundation for openness has been laid, practitioners are experimenting with new kinds of education and pedagogies associated with open content Weller, ; di Savoia, Problem-based learning is one of many progressive pedagogies that might be combined with open education.
This paper defines problem-based learning in the context of open education. Unique challenges are presented and discussed alongside possible solutions, realistic limitations, and calls for implementation in the future to test validity.
Open education; problem-based learning; open educational resources; higher education Introduction For various reasons, open educational resource OER archives are beginning to lose external support, including the OpenCourseWare initiative at Utah State University Perry, This comes at a time when organizations like the OpenCourseWare Consortium are starting to charge educational institutions for membership.
Now more than ever, OER is in a position of needing to find ways to defray costs Downes, or to show value to the organizations that fund them. One possible means of showing value is partnering OER with established, vetted, and well-researched approaches to teaching and learning.
Scholars are beginning to push for an examination of the underlying pedagogies of OER and are even calling for materials that are much more progressive in their orientation Weller,di Savoia, OER is perhaps uniquely positioned for this kind of partnership.
Whereas learning objects are criticized for being a technical or engineered solution to a fundamentally pedagogical problem McGreal,OER is comparatively less about standards and more about the pedagogically neutral concept of openness.
Although there are several pedagogical approaches that OER might be partnered with, this review provides an examination of problem-based learning PBL.
The purpose of this review is to examine problem-based learning open educational resources PBL OERs and to explore the potential for a mutually beneficial relationship between the two areas of inquiry. Because a combination of PBL and OER is scarce in scholarly writing and in empirical work, searches in each area were conducted largely in parallel.
For PBL, search terms included problem based learning and problem-based learning. For OER, search terms included open educational resources and free educational resources.
For references covering both areas of research, variations on PBL were combined with the terms free, open, or resources.
PBL has a reasonable amount of empirical research. It is progressive in its alignment, yet it needs to draw on a range of resources, including both expert-centric and those that are more egalitarian in nature.
Arising in medical schools in the late s, PBL is a learner-centered instructional approach Barrows, PBL consists of student-centeredness, teachers acting as facilitators, small group learning, and beginning with problems that are ill structured and authentic Barrows, ; PBL has been widely adopted and applied in a variety of social science disciplines since its inception in medical education.
Initial writing about PBL was coupled with ambitious aims for the development of domain or content knowledge structured for problem solving, as well as for problem-solving skills, for critical thinking and reasoning, for self-directed learning, and for increased motivation for lifelong learning Barrows, According to the empirical research base, those aims have been largely met.
When assessments become more complex, asking students to explain the underlying relationships between concepts or to apply their knowledge in the solution of novel problems, PBL students perform markedly better Gijbels et al.
Overall, the learning outcomes of PBL are positive.
PBL students have as much content knowledge as their lecture-based counterparts, perform better at more complex forms of assessment, and retain more of what they learn. In addition, the approach has proven robust in several different disciplines and with older students Doucet et al. Although traditionally delivered in face-to-face settings, PBL has expanded recently to include distance learning, which may be better suited to the digital nature of OER.
With dPBL, learners around the world can work together and expand their problem-solving skills. Online learning environments provide PBL learners with opportunities to be involved in different stages of work as a group and to continue their collaboration on projects, despite physical separation, using communication technologies.
The research findings for PBL are favorable: Additionally, Falagas, Karveli, and Panos suggest the use of free Internet resources for case studies, presumably including open educational resources.This study aims to investigate the relationship between open leadership, digital citizenship, technology acceptance and self-efficacy in technological leadership.
Working with a group of education managers, the research was conducted using a relational screening model. An Examination of Transactional Law Clinics and Interdisciplinary Education Dina Schlossberg* Since August of , I have had the good fortune to teach in the.
The pedagogical enhancement of open education: An examination of problem-based learning Open education, as embodied in open educational resources (OER) and OpenCourseWare (OCW), has met and dealt with several key problems.
Educational attainment is often a key indicator in research studies, not least because it is often measured and recorded; life expectancy is compared by educational attainment because it is the only information about education recorded on death certificates.
challenges, higher education, open education, pedagogy, problem-based learning: Abstract: Open education, as embodied in open educational resources (OER) and OpenCourseWare (OCW), has met and dealt with several key problems. The movement now has a critical mass of available content.
Open Textbooks, Open Educational Resources, Open Education Practices, Open Courses, Open Assessment This seminar will be an exploration of the variety of ways universities can engage with the open education movement and will examine the benefits and obstacles to adoption.